The Structure of Heaven and Earth: How Ancient Cosmology Shaped Everyone’s Theology

The Bible is often difficult to make sense of without the proper conceptual framework. Why is Paul concerned about mysterious angels, principles, powers, forces, and archons in his epistles? Why are interactions with demons at the forefront of Jesus’ ministry in Mark? Why is heaven sometimes described as having different levels? Why does Paul describe people under the law as being enslaved to the elements? What motivated early Christians to worship a heavenly saviour? It’s hard to answer these questions without a detailed understanding of ancient Jewish and Greek cosmology, so I’ve spent a great deal of time reading the best books I can find on the subject. Much of what I learned surprised me; perhaps it will surprise you too.

This article might seem to ramble at first. There are dozens of different threads that need to be explored before we can see the tapestry they produce in Christianity. Continue reading “The Structure of Heaven and Earth: How Ancient Cosmology Shaped Everyone’s Theology”

Spooky Tales from the Bible: The Necromancer of Endor

The ghost of Caesar hath appear’d to me
Two several times by night: at Sardis, once;
And, this last night, here in Philippi fields.
I know, my hour is come.
(William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, act 5, scene 5)

It’s several days late, but one of my readers suggested a Halloween-themed article, so I decided to put the other one I was working on aside and take a look at the story of Saul and his visit to the so-called “Witch” of Endor in 1 Samuel 28 in order to summon the spirit of the prophet Samuel from the grave. There is no other story in the Bible like it, and the text poses one or two enigmas that scholars fail to agree on. Let’s take a look. Continue reading “Spooky Tales from the Bible: The Necromancer of Endor”